Formylmorpholine (NFM) is an important organic solvent and fine chemical raw material. It is a colorless transparent liquid at room temperature. It has the chemical properties of amide, and its aqueous solution is easily hydrolyzed into morpholine and formic acid in the presence of acid or base. The aqueous solution is weakly alkaline. Below, the editor will introduce to you:
Formylmorpholine not only has advantages such as good selectivity, thermal and chemical stability, non-toxicity, and non corrosiveness, but also has good solubility and extraction performance due to its unique structure, which can be miscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, and water.
At the same time, due to the dissolution of aromatic hydrocarbons by formylmorpholine, the volatility of aromatic hydrocarbons can be greatly reduced, and the separation coefficient between aromatic and non aromatic hydrocarbons can be improved. Therefore, it is widely used in the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, xylene, etc.) and paraffin hydrocarbons, butene, methyl ethyl ketone, and other processes. It can achieve a purity of up to 99.99% for refined benzene, 99.7% for toluene, and 99.0% for xylene, with low solvent consumption and no need to add pH regulators, It has outstanding advantages such as no corrosion to equipment, energy conservation, and low environmental pollution.
In addition, formylmorpholine can be used as a catalyst in the foaming industry of polyester plastics, as a formylation reagent in the fine chemical industry, and as a solvent for drug synthesis reactions in the pharmaceutical industry. Both of them have excellent performance and are important raw materials for synthesizing drug intermediates.
There are various methods for synthesizing formylmorpholine, which can be divided into formic acid method, methyl formate method, formyl chloride method, carbonyl acylation method, and morpholine enamine oxidation method according to different acylating agents.
Formic acid method
The formic acid method is a suitable industrial production route for China due to its low side reactions and easy availability of raw materials. The reaction equation is as follows: the reaction is a reversible Exothermic reaction. In order to improve the reaction conversion, the method of moving the water in the reaction system to make the balance move to the right is usually used. There are two methods: one is to use water carrying agent to remove water; Another method is to separate water through distillation during the reaction process.
The process of synthesizing formylmorpholine by the Formate method is simple, anhydrous, and less corrosive to the equipment. At present, there are many studies at home and abroad. As an earlier used acylating agent, methyl formate is mature, and neither the reactant nor the product is acidic, which avoids the problem of the formic acid method product being acidic and corrosive to the equipment. However, this method has low yield and many by-products, leading to low product purity.
Supercritical carbonylation method
The carbonylation method using CO and supercritical CO2 as acylating agents is a green and environmentally friendly process for synthesizing formylmorpholine, with low cost and low pollution. However, this process requires high temperature, high pressure, transition metal or precious metal catalysts, and additives to synthesize. It requires high equipment requirements, high investment, complex process, and expensive catalyst prices, The process of supercritical CO2 is currently difficult to achieve large-scale industrial production and has few applications. However, with the gradual maturity of research on supercritical CO2 technology and the advantages of environmental protection, safety, and non-toxicity of supercritical CO2, the carbonylation method using supercritical CO2 as an acylating agent will be widely applied.
Morpholine enamine oxidation method
The oxidation method of morpholine enamine to produce formylmorpholine was reported in a US patent in 1978, which combines morpholine with α Aldehydes of hydrogen are dissolved in pyrimidine or dichloromethane in a molar ratio of 1 ∶ 1.2. Oxygen is introduced and irradiated with a 500W tungsten lamp for 40min. Morpholine and aldehyde undergo Condensation reaction and dehydrate to form enamines. Then 1.2 times oxygen of morpholine is added to the reaction, and hematoporphyrin is added as a photosensitizer to catalyze the oxidation reaction. The enamine double bond breaks to form formylmorpholine.
Used for desulfurization of natural gas, synthetic gas, flue gas, natural gas condensate, and gasoline;  It is a good extraction solvent for petroleum aromatics unit, which can be recovered by Extractive distillation. It has good selectivity, thermal stability and chemical stability, no toxicity, and no corrosion. It is currently a widely used solvent for recovering aromatic hydrocarbons. You can contact us anytime if you have any needs http://www.chadtoddband.com !